Small animal dentistry includes all the subspecialties of human dentistry:
Exodontia. Extraction of teeth is generally done surgically, with closure of the extraction sites with a mucoperiosteal flap to insure uncomplicated healing.
Periodontal surgery. This type of surgery is performed to reduce the depth of the gingival sulcus and to maintain the periodontal attachment apparatus.
Restorative dentistry and prosthodontics. While small animals rarely get “cavities,” it does occasionally occur, as well as traumatic injuries and root canal therapy that require restorative procedures, from “fillings” to the placement of full crowns.
Endodontic therapy. Tooth fracture that results in exposure of the pulp is often treatable by standard root canal therapy. This maintains the function of strategically important teeth, and has a good success rate in the dog.
Orthodontic therapy. While it is unethical to alter the bite of a show or breeding dog/cat, congenital malocclusions are frequently treated with a variety of orthodontic procedures to obtain an atraumatic occlusion.
Maxillofacial surgery. The veterinary dentist is well-trained in all aspects of maxillofacial surgery, from jaw fracture and cleft palate repairs to the surgical treatment of oral cancers.